Breast milk sugar can help treat and prevent infections in newborns
Bacteria known as Streptococcus aureus group B (GBS) are a common cause of blood infections, meningitis, and stillbirths in newborns. GBS infections can often be treated or prevented with antibiotics, but the bacteria are becoming more resistant. Researchers are now finding that human milk oligosaccharides (HMO), a short chain of sugar molecules abundant in breast milk, help prevent GBS infection in human cells, tissues and mice. They say that one day HMOs could replace antibiotics to treat infections in infants and adults.
The researchers will present their findings today at the American Chemical Society (ACS) Fall Conference.
“Our laboratory has already shown that a mixture of HMOs isolated from the milk of mothers of several different donors has antibacterial and antibiofilm activity against GBS,” the conference studied. Says Rebecca Moore, who announced it. “We wanted to get out of these in vitro studies to see if HMOs could prevent cell and tissue infections. Pregnant Moore is a graduate student in the lab of Dr Stephen Townsend of Vanderbilt University and Dr Jennifer Gaddy of Vanderbilt University Medical Center.
According to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 2,000 babies in the United States suffer from GBS each year, of which 4 to 6% die from it. Bacteria are often transferred from mother to baby during labor and delivery. Pregnant women who test positive for GBS are usually given intravenous antibiotics during labor to prevent early infections that occur in the first week of life. Interestingly, the incidence of late infections (occurring 1 week to 3 months after birth) is higher in formula-fed babies than in breast-fed babies. Breast milk May help protect against GBS. If this is the case, sugar could probably replace antibiotics, which in addition to killing beneficial bacteria, the effect decreases due to increased resistance to antibiotics.
Researchers studied the effects of combined HMOs from multiple mothers on GBS infection placental immune cells (called macrophages) and the pregnancy membrane (the sac that surrounds the fetus). “I discovered that the HMO can be completely removed. Bacterial growth For both macrophages and membranes, we immediately decided to turn to mouse models, ”says Moore. They investigated whether HMOs could prevent the spread of GBS infection in the reproductive tract of pregnant mice. In the reproductive system, HMO treatment significantly reduced GBS infection, ”said Moore.
To understand which HMOs and other oligosaccharides have these antibacterial effects, and why, researchers include beneficial Streptococcus salivarius species that grow on tissue culture plates separated by GBS and semi-permeable membranes. Two artificial microbiomes have been put in place. Next, the researchers added a plant-derived galactooligosaccharide (GOS), an oligosaccharide commonly added to infant formulas. In the absence of sugar, GBS suppressed the growth of “good bacteria”, but GOS helped grow this beneficial species. “We concluded that GBS produces growth inhibiting lactic acid. With the addition of oligosaccharides, beneficial species can use it as a food source to overcome this inhibition, ”says Moore. to augment.
Surprisingly enough, the first HMOs tested in the system did not have this effect, but Townsend allows one or more of the more than 200 unique sugars in breast milk to show activity in artificial microbiome testing. He states that he is highly sexual. The team plans to find him. There are probably two reasons why HMOs can treat and prevent GBS infections. The researchers said: It acts as an anti-stick agent by preventing pathogens from adhering to the surface of tissues and forming biofilms, and may act as a prebiotic by promoting growth. Good bacteria.
“HMOs have been around as long as humans, and bacteria don’t understand them, possibly because they are so abundant in milk that they are constantly changing as the baby develops,” Townsend said. to say. “But if we can find out more about how they work, maybe we can treat different kinds of infections with a mixture of HMOs, and one day it will be an antibiotic for babies as well as adults. It can be an alternative. “
Sugar in breast milk helps shape baby’s microflora and prevent infections
For more information:
Antibacterial properties of group B streptococci, milk oligosaccharides in the fall of ACS2021.
American Chemical Society
Quote: Breast milk sugar is obtained from https://phys.org/news/2021-08-sugars-human-infections-newborns.html on August 22, 2021 for newborns (August 22, 2021). May help in the treatment and prevention of infections
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